Stem cells are key to understanding biology as well as discovery and development of novel cell-based therapeutics and pharmaceuticals. In this proposal world-leading stem cell scientists with a track record of original contributions and innovations have come together with the best stem cell researchers in the Russian Federation to jointly address the most important questions in the stem cell field. These include how to make transplantable (stem) cells from induced pluripotent cells and how to develop patient-specific cellular systems for the development of novel pharmaceuticals. An outstanding feature of the proposal is that questions about stem cells will be addressed in collaborative studies using unique technology platforms. Collaborations will be established at annual meetings and by rotation of SkTech students and postdocs in participating laboratories. The proposal includes plans for building the infrastructure required for high-level biomedical science at Skolkovo, a strategy for recruitment of SCSCR Faculty and a detailed Educational Program. Deliverables of the SCSCR include fundamental knowledge about stem cells and associated biomedical industry. The SCSCR will demonstrate how international collaboration between leading researchers can serve science, stimulate economic activity and provide an outstanding training environment for the best students in the Russian Federation.